Posted by: Indonesian Children | December 12, 2009

Development of Communication in Children

DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION IN CHILDREN

dr Widodo judarwanto, pediatrician

Children learn language by interacting with other people. There is a wide variation in the rate at which children develop speech, language and communication skills. Some some children develop quickly while others may take a little more time. In many cases, children who are slow to develop these skills initially can catch up with other children. But for some children, developing communication can be a very difficult process and they may need extra help to develop their skills. If you are concerned about your child’s communication

 

COMMUNICATION KINDERGARTEN

Listening

  • Listen to and understand age-appropriate stories read aloud
  • Follow a simple conversation
  • Follow 1-2 simple directions in a sequence

Speaking

  • Answer open-ended questions (e.g., “What did you have for lunch today?”)
  • Retell a story or talk about an event
  • Participate appropriately in conversations
  • Show interest in and start conversations
  • Be understood by most people
  • Answer simple “yes/no” questions

Reading

  • Compare and match words based on their sounds
  • Understand that letters represent speech sounds and match sounds to letters
  • Identify upper- and lowercase letters
  • Recognize some words by sight
  • “Read” a few picture books from memory
  • Imitate reading by talking about pictures in a book
  • Know how a book works (e.g., read from left to right and top to bottom in English)
  • Understand that spoken words are made up of sounds
  • Identify words that rhyme (e.g., cat and hat)

Writing

  • Draw a picture that tells a story and label and write about the picture
  • Write upper- and lowercase letters (may not be clearly written)
  • Print own first and last name

COMMUNICATION FIRST GRADE

 

Listening

  • Respond to instructions
  • Follow 2-3 step directions in a sequence
  • Remember information

Speaking

  • Use most parts of speech (grammar) correctly
  • Ask and respond to “wh” questions (who, what, where, when, why)
  • Stay on topic and take turns in conversation
  • Give directions
  • Start conversations
  • Be easily understood
  • Answer more complex “yes/no” questions
  • Tell and retell stories and events in a logical order
  • Express ideas with a variety of complete sentences

Reading

  • Match spoken words with print
  • Know how a book works (e.g., read from left to right and top to bottom in English)
  • Identify letters, words, and sentences
  • Sound out words when reading
  • Have a sight vocabulary of 100 common words
  • Read grade-level material fluently
  • Understand what is read
  • Create rhyming words
  • Identify all sounds in short words
  • Blend separate sounds to form words

Writing

  • Spell frequently used words correctly
  • Begin each sentence with capital letters and use ending punctuation
  • Write a variety of stories, journal entries, or letters/notes
  • Express ideas through writing
  • Print clearly

 

COMMUNICATION SECOND GRADE

Listening

  • Understand direction words (e.g., location, space, and time words)
  • Correctly answer questions about a grade-level story
  • Follow 3-4 oral directions in a sequence

Speaking

  • Clarify and explain words and ideas
  • Give directions with 3-4 steps
  • Use oral language to inform, to persuade, and to entertain
  • Stay on topic, take turns, and use appropriate eye contact during conversation
  • Open and close conversation appropriately
  • Be easily understood
  • Answer more complex “yes/no” questions
  • Ask and answer “wh” questions (e.g., who, what, where, when, why)
  • Use increasingly complex sentence structures

Reading

  • Explain key elements of a story (e.g., main idea, main characters, plot)
  • Use own experience to predict and justify what will happen in grade-level stories
  • Read, paraphrase/retell a story in a sequence
  • Read grade-level stories, poetry, or dramatic text silently and aloud with fluency
  • Read spontaneously
  • Identify and use spelling patterns in words when reading
  • Have fully mastered phonics/sound awareness
  • Associate speech sounds, syllables, words, and phrases with their written forms
  • Recognize many words by sight
  • Use meaning clues when reading (e.g., pictures, titles/headings, information in the story)
  • Reread and self-correct when necessary
  • Locate information to answer questions

Writing

  • Organize writing to include beginning, middle, and end
  • Spell frequently used words correctly
  • Progress from inventive spelling (e.g., spelling by sound) to more accurate spelling
  • Write legibly
  • Use a variety of sentence types in writing essays, poetry, or short stories (fiction and nonfiction)
  • Use basic punctuation and capitalization appropriately

 

COMMUNICATION THIRD GRADE

Listening

  • Understand grade-level material
  • Listen attentively in group situations

Speaking

  • Use subject-related vocabulary
  • Stay on topic, use appropriate eye contact, and take turns in conversation
  • Summarize a story accurately
  • Explain what has been learned
  • Speak clearly with an appropriate voice
  • Ask and respond to questions
  • Participate in conversations and group discussions

Reading

  • Predict and justify what will happen next in stories and compare and contrast stories
  • Ask and answer questions regarding reading material
  • Use acquired information to learn about new topics
  • Read grade-level books fluently (fiction and nonfiction)
  • Reread and correct errors when necessary
  • Demonstrate full mastery of basic phonics
  • Use word analysis skills when reading
  • Use clues from language content and structure to help understand what is read

Writing

  • Write stories, letters, simple explanations, and brief reports
  • Spell simple words correctly, correct most spelling independently, and use a dictionary to correct spelling
  • Write clearly in cursive
  • Plan, organize, revise, and edit
  • Include details in writing

 

COMMUNICATION FOURTH GRADE

By the end of fourth grade children should be able to do the following:

Listening

  • Form opinions based on evidence
  • Listen for specific purposes
  • Listen to and understand information presented by others

Speaking

  • Understand some figurative language (e.g., “the forest stretched across…”)
  • Participate in group discussions
  • Give accurate directions to others
  • Summarize and restate ideas
  • Organize information for clarity
  • Use subject area information and vocabulary (e.g., social studies) for learning
  • Make effective oral presentations
  • Use words appropriately in conversation
  • Use language effectively for a variety of purposes

Reading

  • Read for specific purposes
  • Use reference materials (e.g., dictionary)
  • Explain the author’s purpose and writing style
  • Read and understand a variety of types of literature, including fiction, nonfiction, historical fiction, and poetry
  • Compare and contrast in content areas
  • Make inferences from texts
  • Paraphrase content, including the main idea and details
  • Read grade-level books fluently
  • Use previously learned information to understand new material
  • Follow written directions
  • Take brief notes
  • Link information learned to different subjects
  • Learn meanings of new words through knowledge of word origins, synonyms, and multiple meanings

Writing

  • Write effective stories and explanations, including several paragraphs about the same topic
  • Develop a plan for writing, including a beginning, middle, and end
  • Organize writing to convey a central idea
  • Edit final copies for grammar, punctuation, and spelling

 

COMMUNICATION FIFTH GRADE

By the end of fifth grade children should be able to do the following:

Listening

  • Listen and draw conclusions in subject area learning activities

Speaking

  • Maintain eye contact and use gestures, facial expressions, and appropriate voice during group presentations
  • Participate in class discussions across subject areas
  • Summarize main points
  • Report about information gathered in group activities
  • Make planned oral presentations appropriate to the audience

Reading

  • Read grade-level books fluently
  • Read a variety of literary forms
  • Describe development of character and plot
  • Describe characteristics of poetry
  • Analyze author’s language and style
  • Use reference materials to support opinions
  • Learn meanings of unfamiliar words through knowledge of root words, prefixes, and suffixes
  • Prioritize information according to the purpose of reading

Writing

  • Write for a variety of purposes
  • Vary sentence structure
  • Revise writing for clarity
  • Edit final copies
  • Use vocabulary effectively

 

Supported  by

CHILDREN SPEECH CLINIC

Yudhasmara Foundation

Office ; JL Taman Bendungan Asahan 5 Jakarta Indonesia 10210

phone : 62(021) 70081995 – 5703646

email : judarwanto@gmail.com,

https://speechclinic.wordpress.com/

Clinic and Editor in Chief :

Dr WIDODO JUDARWANTO

email : judarwanto@gmail.com

curriculum vitae

 

 

Copyright © 2009, Children Speech Clinic  Information Education Network. All rights reserved


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