Posted by: Indonesian Children | December 6, 2009

Oral-Motor Interventions for Speech, Languages and Feedings Problems in Children

Oral-Motor Interventions for  Speech, Languages and Feedings Problems in Children

Widodo judarwanto

Children with developmental delays often have  Speech, Languages and Feedings Problems resulting from oral-motor problems. Based on both clinical experience and a review of published studies, oral-motor interventions have been shown to be effective in improving the oral function of preterm infants and children with neuromotor disorders, such as cerebral palsy. However, oral-motor problems may be under identified in other populations of children with developmental difficulties. The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework for understanding oral-motor skill development and problems that can occur in any infant and young child and to review oral-motor treatment techniques and their empirical support.

Oral-motor problems in children are easy to recognize when the child coughs and chokes while eating. However, the majority of feeding problems present initially in more subtle ways, such as difficulty introducing spoon feedings or advancing texture, or limited variety of foods accepted

For some children, these more common  Speech, Languages and Feedings Problems may reflect a specific oral-motor problem, such as uncoordinated tongue movement during lateralization or dysfunctional oral transport of the food bolus to the back of the mouth to initiate the swallowing reflex. Children with neurological disorders, or those born prematurely often exhibit oral-motor problems

Oral motor skills develop within a system that changes rapidly both in structural growth and neurological control during the first three years of life. During this period, children engage in a great variety of oral motor experiences as they satisfy their basic needs for food and comfort and begin to explore their world. Developmentally,  Speech, Languages and Feedings Problems exists when a child is “stuck” in their  Speech, Languages and Feedings pattern and cannot progress. Because oral motor skills represent a sequential progression of increasingly complex movement patterns, any disruption in practice can interfere with or limit positive oral motor practice, resulting in the loss of advancement in skill development and the learned behaviors that ensue .

The challenge of treating children with  speech and languages problems comes in identifying the specific areas that interfere with skill advancement for the individual child

Understanding each of the active factors interfering with skill advancement and the interaction of those factors enables the treating team to:

  1. Identify the specific factors contributing to the Speech, Languages and Feedings Problems
  2. Ameliorate them to allow the child successful practice leading to positive learning, skill advancement and mastery

Reference Recommendation Oral Motor Intervention in Children :

  • Howle, J.M. (2003). Neuro-Developmental Treatment Approach: Theoretical Foundations and Principles of Clinical Practice. Neurodevelopmental Treatment Association, Laguna Beach: California. Canada.
  • Hulme, J. B., Gallacher, K., Walsh, J., Niesen, S., & Waldron, D. (1987). Behavioral and postural changes observed with use of adaptive seating by clients with multiple handicaps. Physical Therapy, 67, 1060-1067.
  • Hyman, P. (1993). Gastroesophageal reflux: One reason why baby won’t eat. The Journal of Pediatrics, 125, S103-S109.
  • Cecilia J. Manno, Speech-Language Pathology, Private Practice, Newtown, PA
  • Palmer, S., & Horn, S. (1977). Feeding problems in children. In S. Palmer & S. Ekvall (Eds.), Pediatric Nutrition in Developmental Disorders. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
  • Illingworth, R. S. & Lister, J. (1964). The critical or sensitive period, with special reference to certain feeding problems in infants and children. Journal of Pediatrics, 65, 839-848.
  • Ingram, T. T. (1962). Clinical significance of the infantile feeding reflexes. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 4, 159-169.
  • Johnson, H. M., Reid, S. M., Hazard, C. J., Lucas, J. O., Desai, M., & Reddihough, D. S. (2004). Effectiveness of Innsbruck Sensorimotor Activator and Regulator in improving saliva control in children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 46, 39-45.
  • Kerwin, M. L. (1999). Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: Severe feeding problems. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 24, 193-214.
  • Kerwin, M.L.E. (2003). Pediatric Feeding Disorders. The Behavior Analyst Today, 4, 160-174. Retrieved from http://www.behavior-analyst-online.org/NEWBAT/Frameless BAT/ BAT-4.2-7-23-03-C.PDF.
  • Kerwin, M. L. E., & Eicher, P. S. (2004). Behavioral interventions and prevention of feeding difficulties in infants and children. Journal of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention, 1, 129-140.
  • McFarland, D. H., Lund, J. P., & Gagner, M. (1994). Effects of posture on the coordination of respiration and swallowing. Journal of Neurophysiology, 74, 2431-2437.
  • Mendell, D. A., & Logemann, J. A. (2002). A retrospective analysis of the pharyngeal swallow in patients with a clinical diagnosis of GERD compared with normal controls: A pilot study. Dysphagia, 17, 220-226.
  • Meyer, P. G. (2000). Tongue lip and jaw differentiation and its relationship to orofacial myofunctional treatment. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 26, 44-52.
  • Miller, A. J. (1986). Neurophysiological basis of swallowing. Dysphagia, 1, 90-100.
  • Miller, A. J. (1993). The search for the central swallowing pathway: The quest for clarity. Dysphagia, 8, 185-194.
  • Morris, S. E., & Klein, M. D. (2000). Pre-Feeding Skills: A comprehensive resource for mealtime development (2nd ed.). Tucson, Arizona: Therapy Skill Builders.
  • Ogg, H. L. (1975). Oral-pharyngeal development and evaluation. Physical Therapy, 55, 235-241. Palmer, M. M., & Heyman, M. B. (1993). Assessment and treatment of sensory- versus motor-based feeding problems in very young children. Infants and Young Children, 6, 67-73.
  • Palmer, J. B., & Hiiemae, K. M. (2003). Eating and breathing: Interactions between respiration and feeding on solid food. Dysphagia, 18, 169-178.
  • Kumin, L., & Bahr, D. C. (1999). Patterns of feeding, eating, and drinking in young children with Down Syndrome with oral motor concerns. Down Syndrome Quarterly, 4, 1-8.
  • Kumin, L., Von Hagel, K. C., & Bahr, D. C. (2000). An effective oral motor intervention protocol for infants and toddlers with low muscle tone. Infant-Toddler Intervention, 11, 181-200.
  • Lamm, N., & Greer, R. D. (1988). Induction and maintenance of swallowing responses in infants with dysphagia. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 143-156.
  • Lanert, G., & Ekberg, O. (1995). Positioning improves the oral and pharyngeal swallowing function in children with cerebral palsy. Acta Paediatrica, 84, 689-692.
  • Larrington, G. G. (1987). A sensory integration based program with a severely retarded/autistic teenager: An occupational therapy case report. Sensory Integrative Approaches in Occupational Therapy, 4, 101-117.
  • Lau, C., & Hurst, N. (1999). Oral feeding in infants. Current Problems in Pediatrics, 29, 105-124.
  • Lau, C., Smith, E. O., & Schanler, R. J. (2003). Coordination of suck-swallow and swallow respiration in preterm infants. Acta Paediatrica, 92, 721-727.
  • Law-Morstatt, L., Judd, D. M., Snyder, P., Baier, J. J., & Dhanireddy, R. (2003). Pacing as a treatment technique for transitional sucking patterns. Journal of Perinatalogy, 23, 483-488.
  • Kerwin, M. L. E., & Eicher, P. S. (2004). Behavioral interventions and prevention of feeding difficulties in infants and children. Journal of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention, 1, 129-140.
  • Kumin, L., & Bahr, D. C. (1999). Patterns of feeding, eating, and drinking in young children with Down Syndrome with oral motor concerns. Down Syndrome Quarterly, 4, 1-8.
  • Kumin, L., Von Hagel, K. C., & Bahr, D. C. (2000). An effective oral motor intervention protocol for infants and toddlers with low muscle tone. Infant-Toddler Intervention, 11, 181-200.
  • Lamm, N., & Greer, R. D. (1988). Induction and maintenance of swallowing responses in infants with dysphagia. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 143-156.
  • Lanert, G., & Ekberg, O. (1995). Positioning improves the oral and pharyngeal swallowing function in children with cerebral palsy. Acta Paediatrica, 84, 689-692.
  • Larrington, G. G. (1987). A sensory integration based program with a severely retarded/autistic teenager: An occupational therapy case report. Sensory Integrative Approaches in Occupational Therapy, 4, 101-117.
  • Lau, C., & Hurst, N. (1999). Oral feeding in infants. Current Problems in Pediatrics, 29, 105-124.
  • Lau, C., Smith, E. O., & Schanler, R. J. (2003). Coordination of suck-swallow and swallow respiration in preterm infants. Acta Paediatrica, 92, 721-727.
  • Law-Morstatt, L., Judd, D. M., Snyder, P., Baier, J. J., & Dhanireddy, R. (2003). Pacing as a treatment technique for transitional sucking patterns. Journal of Perinatalogy, 23, 483-488.
  • Luiselli, J. K., & Gleason, D. J. (1987). Combining sensory reinforcement and texture fading procedures to overcome chronic food refusal. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 18, 149-155.
  • Macie, D., & Arvedson, J.C. (1993). Tone and positioning. In J. C. Arvedson & L. Brodsky (Eds.), Pediatric Swallowing and Feeding: Assessment & Management (pp. 209-247). San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.
  • Patel, M. R., Piazza, C. C., Kelly, M. L., Ochsner, C. A., & Santana, C. M. (2001). Using a fading procedure to increase fluid consumption in a child with feeding problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 357-360.
  • Patrick, J., & Gisel, E. G. (1990). Nutrition for feeding impaired child. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, 4, 115-119.
  • Petersen, P., & Ottenbacher, K. (1986). Use of applied behavioral techniques and an adaptive device to teach lip closure to severely handicapped children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 90, 535-539.
  • Pinder, G. L., & Faherty, A. S. (1999). Issues in pediatric feeding and swallowing. In A. Caruso & E. A. Strand (Eds.), Clinical Management of Motor Speech Disorders in Children (pp. 281-318). New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers.
  • Pinnington, L., & Hegarty, J. (2000). Effects of consistent food presentation on oral-motor skill acquisition in children with severe neurological impairment. Dysphagia, 15, 213-223.
  • Ramsay, M., Gisel, E. G., McCusker, J., Bellavance, F., & Platt, R. (2002). Infant sucking ability, non-organic failure to thrive, maternal characteristics, and feeding practices: A prospective cohort study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 44, 405-414.
  • Reilly, S. M., Skuse, D. H., Wolke, D., & Stevenson, J. (1999). Oral-motor dysfunction in children who fail to thrive: Organic or non-organic? Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41, 115-122.
  • Rendon-Macias, M. E., Cruz-Perez, L. A., Mosco-Peralta, M. R., Saraiba-Russell, M. M., Levi-Tajfeld, S., & Morales-Lopez, M. G. (1999). Assessment of sensorial oral stimulation in infants with suck feeding disabilities. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 66, 319-329.
  • Roley, S.S., Blanche, E.I., & Schaaf, R.C. (2001). Sensory Integration with Diverse Populations. Tucson, Arizona: Therapy Skill Builders.
  • Rudolph, C., & Link, D. T. (2002). Feeding disorders in infants and children. Pediatric Clinics of North America: Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 49, 97-112.
  • Shore, B. A., Babbitt, R. L., Williams, K. E., Coe, D. A., & Snyder, A. (1998). Use of texture fading in the treatment of food selectivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 621-633.
  • Sivit, C. J., Curtis, D. J., Crain, M., Cruess, D. F., & Winters, C. (1988). Pharyngeal swallow in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Dysphagia, 2, 151-155.
  • Smith, A., Weber, C. M., Newton, J., & Denny, M. (1991). Developmental and age-related changes in reflexes of the human jaw-closing system. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 81, 118-128.
  • Stevenson, R. D., & Allaire, J. H. (1991). The development of normal feeding and swallowing. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 38, 1439-1453.
  • Daniels, H., Devlieger, H., Minami, T., Eggermont, E., & Casaer, P. (1990). Infant feeding and cardiorespiratory maturation. Neuropediatrics, 21, 9-10.
  • DeGangi, G. A. (1994). Examining the efficacy of short-term NDT intervention using a case study design: Part 2. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 14, 21-61.
  • Eicher, P.S. (2002). Feeding. In M.L. Batshaw (Ed.), Children with disabilities (pp. 549-566). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Einarsson-Backes, L. M., Deitz, J., Price, R., Glass, R., & Hays, R. (1994). The effect of oral support on sucking efficiency in preterm infants. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48, 490-498.
  • Ernsperger , L., & Hanson, T. (2004). Motor-Based Eating Problems vs. Sensory-Based Eating Problems in Just Take a Bite. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons Inc.
  • Fucile, S., Gisel, E. G., & Lau, C. (2005). Effect of an oral stimulation program on sucking skill maturation of preterm infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 47, 158-162.
  • Gaebler, C. P., & Hanzlik, J. R. (1996). The effects of a prefeeding stimulation program on preterm infants. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 50, 184-192.
  • Gisel, E. G. (1994). Oral-motor skills following sensorimotor intervention in the moderately Eating-impaired child with cerebral palsy. Dysphagia, 9, 180-192.
  • Gisel, E. G., Alphonce, E., & Ramsay, M. (2000). Assessment of ingestive and oral praxis skills: Children with cerebral palsy vs. controls. Dysphagia, 15, 236-244.
  • Sullivan, P. B., Lambert, B., Ford-Adams, M., Griffiths, P., & Johnson, A. (2000). Prevalence and severity of feeding and nutritional problems in children with neurological impairments: Oxford Feeding Study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 42, 674-680.
  • Tamura, Y., Matsushita, S., Shinoda, K., & Yoshida, S. (1998). Development of perioroal muscle activity during suckling in infants: A cross-sectional and follow-up study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 40, 344-348.
  • Timms, B.J., DeFiore, J.M., Martin, R.J., & Miller, M. J. (1993). Increased respiratory drive as an inhibitor of oral feeding of preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 123, 127-131.
  • Catherine Fox, Pediatric Occupational Therapy, Private Practice, Frederick, MD
  • Peggy S. Eicher, Center for Pediatric Feeding and Swallowing Disorders, St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center
  • MaryLouise E. Kerwin, Department of Psychology, Rowan University
  • Alper, B. S., & Manno, C. J. (1996). Dysphagia in infants and children with oral-motor deficits: Assessment and management. Seminars in Speech and Language, 17, 283-310.
  • Amato, J., & Slavin, D. (1998). A preliminary investigation of oromotor function in young verbal and nonverbal children with autism. Infant Toddler Investigation: The Transdisciplinary Journal, 8, 175-184.
  • Arvedson, J. C., & Lefton-Greif, M. A. (1996). Anatomy, physiology and development of feeding. Seminars in Speech and Language, 17, 261-268.
  • Ayano, R., Tamura, F., Ohtsuka, Y., & Mukai, Y. (2000). The development of normal feeding and swallowing: Showa University study of feeding function. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 26, 24-32.
  • Bailey, R. L., & Angell, M. E. (2005). Improving feeding skills and mealtime behaviors in children with disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40, 80-96.
  • Bosma, J. F. (1986). Development of feeding. Clinical Nutrition, 5, 210-218.
  • Burklow, K. A., McGrath, A. M., Valerius, K. S., & Rudolph, C. (2002). Relationship between feeding difficulties, medical complexity, and gestational age. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 17, 373-378.
  • Case-Smith, J. (1988). An efficacy study of occupational therapy with high-risk neonates. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42, 499-506.
  • Chigira, A., Omoo, K., Mukai, Y., & Kaneko, Y. (1994). Lip closing pressure in disabled children: A comparison with normal children. Dysphagia, 9, 193-198.
  • Gisel, E. G., Applegate-Ferrante, T., Benson, J. E., & Bosma, J. F. (1995). Effect of oral sensorimotor treatment on measures of growth, eating efficiency, and aspiration in the dysphagic child with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 37, 528-543.
  • Gisel, E. G., Applegate-Ferrante, T., Benson, J. E., & Bosma, J. F. (1996). Oral-motor skills following sensorimotor therapy in two groups of moderately dysphagic children with cerebral palsy: Aspiration vs. nonaspiration. Dysphagia, 11, 59-71.
  • Gisel, E. G., Birnbaum, R., & Schwartz, S. (1998). Feeding impairments in children: Diagnosis and effective intervention. The International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 24, 27-33.
  • Gisel, E. G., Haberfellner, H., & Schwartz, S. (1999). The Innsbruck Sensorimotor Activator and Regulator (ISMAR): Construction of an intraoral appliance to facilitate ingestive function Journal of Dentistry for Children, 66, 180-187.
  • Gisel, E. G., Haberfellner, H., & Schwartz, S. (2001). Impact of oral appliance therapy: Are oral Skills and growth maintained one year after termination of therapy? Dysphagia, 16, 296-307.
  • Gisel, E. G., Schwartz, S., Petryk, A., Clarke, D., & Haberfellner, H. (2000). “Whole body” Mobility after one year of intraoral appliance therapy in children with cerebral palsy and moderate eating impairment. Dysphagia, 15, 226-235.
  • Smith C, Hill J, Language Development and Disorders of Communication and Oral Motor Function. In : Molnar GE, Alexander MA,editors. Pediatric Rehabilitation. Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus;1999.p. 57-79.
  • Owens RE. Language Development an Introduction, 5th edition. New York:Allyn and Bacon; 2001.
  • Chaer A, Psiokolinguistik Kajian Teoritik. Jakarta: Rineka Abdi.. 2003
  • Nelson HD, Nygren P, Walker Miranda et.al, Screening for Speech and Language Delay in Preschool Children; Systematic Evidence Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.  Pediatrics 2006; 117;298-319
  • Stern LM, Connell TM, Lee M, Greenwood G. The Adelaide preschool language unit: results of follow-up.. J Paediatr Child Health. 1995 Jun;31(3):207-12.
  • Bashir AS, Scvuzzo A.  Children with language disorders: natural history and academic success. J Learn Disabil. 1992 Jan;25(1):53-65.
  • Schuster MA. Developmental screening. In:McGlynn EA, editor. Quality of care for children and adolescents; A review of selected clinical condition ad quality indicators. Santa Monica, CA:RAND;2000.p.157-168.
  • D’odorico L, Assanelli A. A follow up study on Italian late talkers: Development of  language, short –term memory, phonological awareness, impulsiveness, and attention. Applied Psycholingistics 28(2007),157-169.
  • Peters SA, Grievink EH, van Bon WH, van der Bercken JH, Schilder AG. The Contribution of risk factors to effect of early otitis media with effusion on later language, reading and spelling. Dev Med Child Neurol 1997;39(1):31-39. 
  • Larney R, The relationship between language delay and later difficulty in Literacy. Early Child Development and Care. 2002: (April)Volume 172;183 – 193.
  • Silva PA, Williams SM, McGee R. A longitudinal study of children with developmental language delay at age three; later intelligence , reading and behavior problems. Dev Med Child Neurol 1987;29;630-640.
  • Young AR, Beitchman JH, Johnson C, Douglas L, Atkinson L, Escobar M, et.al. Young adult academic outcomes in a longitudinal sample of early identified language impaired and control children.  Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 43 (5), 635–645
  • Beitchman J  Language dev and its impact on children’s psychosocial and emotional development. In: Tremblay RE, Bar RG, Peters RD, eds. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development. Montreal: Centre of Excellence for early Childhood Development; 2005;1-7 Available at ;http://www.xcellence-earlychildhood.ca/documents/BeitchmanANGsp.
  • Rydz D, Srour M, Oskoui M, Marget N, Shiller M, Majnemer A, et.al. Screening for developmental delay in the setting of a community pediatr clinic: A Prospective assessment of parent-Report questionnaires. Pediatrics 2006;118;e1178-e1186.
  • Council on Children with Disabilities, Section on Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, Bright Futures Steering committee and Medical Home Initiatives for Children with special needs Project Advisory Committee.  Identifying infants and young children with  developmental disorders in the Medical Home: An algorithm for developmental surveillance and screening. Pediatrics 2006;118;405-420.
  • Law J, Bowle J, Harris F, Harkness A, Nye C., Screening for speech and language delay; a systematic review of literature, In: Health Technology Assessment 1998 Vol2(9).
  • Silva PA, McGee R, Williams SM. Developmental language delay from three to seven years and its significance for low intelligence and reading difficulties at age seven. Dev Med Child Neurol 1983;25(6):783-793.
  • Harty M. Association between maternal self-efficacy and maternal perception of child language competence.  University of Pretoria. 2005.
  • Harty M. Maternal self efficacy and maternal perception of child language competence in pre-school children with a communication disability. Child, Health and Development 2006;33,2;144-154.
  • St. James-Roberts I, Alstone E.  Attention development in 10-month-old infants selected by the WILSTAAR screen for pre-language skill. J of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 47;1.2006.;63-68. 
  • Bzoch K, League R. Receptive Expressive Emergent Language Test (REEL), 3nd ed. Pro-Ed. Austin. 2003.
  • Rao PR, Adult Communication Disorders. In : Braddom RL ed, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.  WB Saunders;2000.p.55-73
  • Oxford Learner’s Dictionary, New Ediition. Oxford University Press. 2003
  • Maturana HR, Biology of Language: The Epistemology of Reality. IN: Psychology and Biology of Language and Thought. New York :Academic Press; 1978.p.27-63.
  • Victor M, Ropper AH. Priciples of Neurology Adams and Victor’s, seventh edition. McGraw-Hill.2001.
  • Lundsteen SW, Tarrow NB. Guiding young children’s learning. New York; Mc Graw Hill; 1981.
  • Myklebust M. Prelinguistic Communication. In: Yule W, Rutter M,eds.  Language development and disorders; Clinics in developmental medicine. 1968.
  • .Johnston J.  Factors that Influence Language Development. In : Tremblay RE, Barr RG, Peters R, eds. Encyclopedia of Language and Literacy Development (pp1-6). London. Canadian language and Literacy Research network. 2006. Available at :
  • Tomblin J, Smith E, Zhang X. Epidemiologi of specific language  impairment; Prenatal and perinatal risk factors. J Common Disorder 1997;30(4);325-344.
  • Weindrich D, Jennen-Steinment C, Laucht M, Esser G, Schidt MH. Epidemiology and prognosis of specific disordes language and scholastic skills. Eur child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000;9(3):186-194.
  • Yliherva A, Olsen P, Maki-Torkko E, Koiranen M, Jarvelin MR. Linguistic and motor abilities of low-birthweight children as assessed by parents and teachers at 8 years of age. Acta Paediatr 2001;90(12):1440-49.
  • Horton R, The Influence of Culture, Class and Linguistic Diversity on Early Language Development.  Available on :http://www.zerotothree.org/reprints/  Accessed on : November 10, 2006.
  • Dale PS, Simonoff E, Bishop DVM, Eley TC, Oliver B, Price TS, et.al. Genetic influence on language dlay in two-year-old children.  Nature Neuroscience. 1990 (August) volume 1;1;324-28.
  • Fox A, Dodd B, Howard D. Risk factors for speech disorders in children. Int J Lang Common Disord 2002;37(2):117-131.
  • Lyytinen H, Ahonen T, Eklund K, Guttorm TK, Laakso ML, Leinonen S, et.al. Developmental pathways of children  with and without familial risk for dyslexia duringthe first years of life. Dev Neuropsychol 2001;20(2):535-554.
  • Campbell TF, Dollaghan CA, Rockette HE, Paradise JL, Feldman HM, Shriberg LD, et.al. Risk factors for speech delay of unknown origin in 3-year-old children. Child dev 2003;74(2):346-357.
  • Choudhury N, Benasich AA,. A Family aggregation study: The influence of family history and other risk factors on language development. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2003;46(2):261-72.
  • Diagnostic Independent Study; Speech-Language Pathology. Last Update July 12, 2007.
  • Pickstone C, hannon P, Fox L, Surveying and screening preschool language development in community-focused intervention programme a review of instruments. Child Care, Health and Development. 28,3;2-26451Blackwell Science
  • Blum NJ, Baron MA. Speech and language disorders. In: Schwartz MW, ed. Pediatric primary care: a problem oriented approach. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997:845-9.
  • Ansel BM, Landa RM, Stark-Selz RE. Development and disorders of speech and language. In: Oski FA, DeAngelis CD, eds. Principles and practice of pediatrics. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1994:686-700.
  • Schwartz ER. Speech and language disorders. In: Schwartz MW, ed. Pediatric primary care: a problem oriented approach. St. Louis: Mosby, 1990: 696-700.
  • Shonkoff JP. Language delay: late talking to communication disorder. In: Rudolph AM, Hoffman JI, Rudolph CD, eds. Rudolph’s pediatrics. London: Prentice-Hall, 1996:124-8.
  • Silva PA, Williams S, McGee R. A longitudinal study of children with developmental language delay at age three: later intelligence, reading and behaviour problems. Dev Med Child Neurol 1987;29:630-40.
  • Stevenson J, Richman N. The prevalence of language delay in a population of three-year-old children and its association with general retardation. Dev Med Child Neurol 1976;18:431-41.
  • Vessey JA. The child with cognitive, sensory, or communication impairment. In: Wong DL, Wilson D, eds. Whaley & Wong’s nursing care of infants and children. St. Louis: Mosby, 1995:1006-47.
  • Coplan J. Evaluation of the child with delayed speech or language. Pediatr Ann 1985;14:203-8.
  • Leung AK, Robson WL, Fagan J, Chopra S, Lim SH. Mental retardation. J R Soc Health 1995;115:31-9.
  • Schlieper A, Kisilevsky H, Mattingly S, Yorke L. Mild conductive hearing loss and language development: a one year follow-up study. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1985;6:65-8.
  • Allen DV, Robinson DO. Middle ear status and language development in preschool children. ASHA 1984;26:33-7.
  • Whitman RL, Schwartz ER. The pediatrician’s approach to the preschool child with language delay. Clin Pediatr 1985;24:26-31.
  • McRae KM, Vickar E. Simple developmental speech delay: a follow-up study. Dev Med Child Neurol 1991;33:868-74.
  • Davis H, Stroud A, Green L. The maternal language environment of children with language delay. Br J Disord Commun 1988;23:253-66.
  • Allen R, Wasserman GA. Origins of language delay in abused infants. Child Abuse Negl 1985;9:335-40.
  • Bishop DV. Developmental disorders of speech and language. In: Rutter M, Taylor E, Hersov L, eds. Child and adolescent psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1994:546-68.
  • Denckla MB. Language disorders. In: Downey JA, Low NL, eds. The child with disabling illness: principles of rehabilitation. New York: Raven, 1982:175-202.
  • Coplan J. ELM scale: the early language milestone scale. Austin, Tex.: Pro-Ed, 1987.
  • Dunn LM, Dunn LM. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test­Revised (PPVT­R). Circle Pines, Minn.: American Guidance Services, 1981.
  • Resnick TJ, Allen DA, Rapin I. Disorders of language development: diagnosis and intervention. Pediatr Rev 1984;6:85-92.
  • Lowenthal B. Effect of small-group instruction in language-delayed preschoolers. Except Child 1981;48:178-9.
  • Amy J. Newmeyer. Fine Motor Function and Oral-Motor Imitation Skills in Preschool-Age Children With Speech-Sound Disorders. Clinical Pediatrics, Vol. 46, No. 7, 604-611 (2007)
  • Lawrence D. Shriberg 1Joan Kwiatkowski 1 Self-Monitoring and Generalization in Preschool Speech-Delayed Children.American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology Vol.17 81-91 February 2008. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2008/007)
  • Rebecca J. McCauley Edythe A. Strand. A Review of Standardized Tests of Nonverbal Oral and Speech Motor Performance in ChildrenJournal of Speech and Hearing Research Vol.30 171-184 June 1987.
  • W. J. Hardcastle 1R. A. Morgan Barry 1C. J. Clark 1 An Instrumental Phonetic Study of Lingual Activity in Articulation-Disordered Children
  • Margaret S. Christensen M.S.1 and Marvin L. Hanson Ph.D.2 An Investigation of the Efficacy of Oral Myofunctional Therapy as a Precursor to Articulation Therapy for Pre-First Grade Children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools Vol.8 155-163 July 1977.
  • Robert M. Mason, Charlann Simon. An Orofacial Examination Checklist. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools Vol.36 294-307 October 2005. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2005/030)
  • Dean Sutherland 1Gail T. Gillon 1 Assessment of Phonological Representations in Children With Speech Impairment . Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Vol.46 1387-1400 December 2003. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2003/108)
  • Michael D. McClean 1Stephen M. Tasko 2 Association of Orofacial Muscle Activity and Movement During Changes in Speech Rate and Intensity Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools Vol.39 314-328 July 2008. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2008/030)
  • Haberfellner, H., Schwartz, S., & Gisel, E. G. (2001). Feeding skills and growth after one year of intraoral appliance therapy in moderately dysphagic children with cerebral palsy. Dysphagia, 16, 1-14.
  • Hagopian, L. P., Farrell, D. A., & Amari, A. (1996). Treating total liquid refusal with backward chaining and fading. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 573-575.
  • Henderson, R. D., Woolf, C., & Marryatt, G. (1976). Pharyngoesophageal dysphgia and gastroesophageal reflux. Laryngoscope, 86, 1531-1539.
  • Herbst, J. J. (1983). Development of suck and swallow. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, 2 Supplement 1, S131-S135.
  • Hoch, T. A., Babbitt, R. A., Coe, D. A., Ducan, A., & Trusty, E. M. (1995). A swallow induction avoidance procedure to establish eating. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 26, 41-50.

 

 

Supported by

PICKY EATERS CLINIC

KLINIK KHUSUS KESULITAN MAKAN PADA ANAK

JL TAMAN BENDUNGAN ASAHAN 5 JAKARTA PUSAT, JAKARTA INDONESIA 10210

PHONE :62 (021) 70081995 – 5703646

Email : judarwanto@gmail.com

http://mypickyeaters.wordpress.com/

 

Clinical and Editor in Chief :

Dr Widodo Judarwanto, pediatrician

email : judarwanto@gmail.com,

 

 

                                                                                                            

Information on this web site is provided for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. You should not use the information on this web site for diagnosing or treating a medical or health condition. You should carefully read all product packaging. If you have or suspect you have a medical problem, promptly contact your professional healthcare provider.

 

 

Copyright © 2009, Picky Eaters Clinic Information Education Network. All rights reserved.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Categories

%d bloggers like this: