Posted by: Indonesian Children | August 3, 2009

ABSTYRACT WATCH : Motor Profile of Children With Developmental Speech and Language Disorders

PEDIATRICS Vol. 120 No. 1 July 2007, pp. e158-e163 (doi:10.1542/peds.2006-2462)

Chris Visscher, PhDa,b, Suzanne Houwen, MSca,b, Erik J.A. Scherder, PhDa, Ben Moolenaar, BEdc and Esther Hartman, PhDa

a Center for Human Movement Sciences
b University Center for Sport, Movement, and Health, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
c Hanze Institute for Sports Studies, Hanze University Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands



OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motor profile of 125 children with developmental speech and language disorders and to test for differences, if any, in motor profile among subgroups of children with developmental speech and language disorders.

METHODS. The participants were 125 children with developmental speech and language disorders aged 6 to 9 years from 2 special schools for children with communication problems in the northern Netherlands. They were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. The children were classified by the schools’ speech and language therapists into 3 subgroups on the basis of language tests, oral motor tests, and clinical examinations: children with speech disorders (n = 14), language disorders (n = 46), or both (n = 65).

RESULTS. Compared with the norms of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, children with developmental speech and language disorders performed significantly less well. Results showed that 51% of the children with developmental speech and language disorders had borderline or definite motor problems. Children with language disorders had significantly lower scores (ie, better performance) on the ball-skills subtest and the total test than children with speech disorders and children with both speech and language disorders. Furthermore, children with language disorders had significantly better performance on the balance subtest than children with both speech and language disorders.

CONCLUSIONS. The findings of this study support the idea that developmental speech and language disorders are frequently associated with motor problems and that the kind of developmental speech and language disorders affects motor performance differently. Speech and language disorders seem to have more impact on motor performance than only language disorders, and it seems that when speech production is affected, motor problems are more pronounced. The findings support the need to give early and more attention to the motor skills of children with developmental speech and language disorders in the educational and home setting, with special attention to children whose speech is affected.

Key Words: motor development • language development disorders • children




  1. Bishop DVM. The underlying nature of specific language impairment. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1992;33 :3 –66[ISI][Medline]
  2. Bishop DVM. Motor immaturity and specific speech and language impairment: evidence for a common genetic basis. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2002;114 :56 –63[CrossRef]
  3. Keating D, Turrell G, Ozanne A. Childhood speech disorders: reported prevalence, comorbidity and socio-economic profile. J Paediatr Child Health. 2001;37 :431 –436[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  4. Shriberg LD, Tomblin JB, McSweeny JL. Prevalence of speech delay in 6-year-old children and comorbidity with language impairment. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1999;42 :1461 –1481[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  5. Hill EL. A dyspraxic deficit in specific language impairment and developmental coordination disorder? Evidence from hand and arm movements. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1998;40 :388 –395[ISI][Medline]
  6. Rintala P, Linjala J. Scores on test of gross motor development of children with dysphasia: a pilot study. Percept Mot Skills. 2003;97 :755 –762[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  7. Rintala P, Pienimäki K, Ahonen T, Cantell M, Kooistra L. The effects of a psychomotor training programme on motor skill development in children with developmental language disorders. Hum Mov Sci. 1998;17 :721 –737[CrossRef][ISI]
  8. Webster RI, Majnemer A, Platt RW, Shevell MI. Motor function at school age in children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment. J Pediatr. 2005;146 :80 –85[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  9. Webster RI, Erdos C, Evans K, et al. The clinical spectrum of developmental language impairment in school-aged children: language, cognitive, and motor finding. Pediatrics. 2006;118(5) . Available at:
  10. Diamond A. Close interrelation of motor development and cognitive development and of the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. Child Dev. 2000;71 :44 –56[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  11. Gilger JW, Kaplan BJ. Atypical brain development: a conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Dev Neuropsychol. 2001;20 :465 –481[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  12. Kaplan B, Crawford S, Cantell M, Kooistra L, Dewey D. Comorbidity, co-occurrence, continuum: what’s in a name? Child Care Health Dev. 2006;32 :723 –731[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  13. Camarata S, Conture E. Disorders of speech and language development. In: Wolraich M, ed. Disorders of Development and Learning. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: B.C. Decker, Inc; 2003:175 –194
  14. Gertner BL, Rice ML. Influence of communicative competence on peer preferences in a preschool classroom. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1994;37 :913 –923[Medline]
  15. Hill EL. Non-specific nature of specific language impairment: a review of the literature with regard to concomitant motor impairments. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2001;36 :149 –171[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  16. Owen SE, McKinlay IA. Motor difficulties in children with developmental disorders of speech and language. Child Care Health Dev. 1997;23 :315 –325[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  17. Preis S, Schittler P, Lenard HG. Motor performance and handedness in children with developmental language disorder. Neuropediatrics. 1997;28 :324 –327[ISI][Medline]
  18. Powell RP, Bishop DVM. Clumsiness and perceptual problems in children with specific language impairment. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1992;34 :755 –765[ISI][Medline]
  19. Noterdaeme M, Mildenberger K, Minow F, Amorosa H. Evaluation of neuromotor deficits in children with autism and children with a specific speech and language disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002;11 :219 –225[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  20. Stark RE, Tallal P. Perceptual and motor deficits in language impaired children. In: Keith RW, ed. Central Auditory and Language Disorders in Children. San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press; 1981:121 –144
  21. Gallahue DL, Ozmun JC, eds. Understanding Motor Development: Infants, Children, Adolescents, Adults. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2002
  22. Henderson SE, Sudgen DA, eds. Movement Assessment Battery for Children: Manual. London, England: Psychological Corporation; 1992
  23. Fratiglioni L, Paillard-Borg S, Winblad B. An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. Lancet Neurol. 2004;3 :343 –353[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  24. Fritsch T, Smyth KA. Associations between dementia/mild cognitive impairment and cognitive performance and activity levels in youth. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53 :191 –196
  25. Van Bon WHJ, ed. Taaltest Voor Kinderen. Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger; 1982
  26. Van Waelvelde H, De Weerdt W, De Cock P, Smits-Engelsman BCM. Aspects of the validity of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Hum Mov Sci. 2004;23 :49 –60[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  27. Field A, ed. Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. 2nd ed. London, England: SAGE Publications; 2005
  28. Cermak SA, Ward EA, Ward LM. The relationship between articulation disorders and motor coordination in children. Am J Occup Ther. 1986;40 :546 –551[ISI][Medline]
  29. Fernell E, Norrelgen F, Bozkurt I, Hellberg G, Löwing K. Developmental profiles and auditory perception in 25 children attending special preschools for language-impaired children. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91 :1108 –1115[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  30. Robinson RJ. Causes and associations of severe and persistent specific speech and language disorders in children. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1991;33 :943 –962[ISI][Medline]
  31. Wiznitzer M, Rapin I, Allen D. Motor function in school-age children with developmental language disorders. Ann Neurol. 1986;20 :413 –414
  32. Bullock D. Adaptive neural models of queuing and timing in fluent action. Trends Cogn Sci. 2004;8 :426 –433[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  33. Visser JE, Bloem BR. Role of the basal ganglia in balance control. Neural Plast. 2005;12 :161 –174; discussion 263–272[Medline]
  34. Siebner HR, Limmer C, Peinemann A, Bartenstein P, Drzezga A, Conrad B. Brain correlates of fast and slow handwriting in humans: a PET-performance correlation analysis. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;14 :726 –736[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  35. Fabbro F, Clarici A, Bava A. Effects of left basal ganglia lesions on language production. Percept Mot Skills. 1996;82 :1291 –1298[ISI][Medline]
  36. Valtonen R, Ahonen T, Lyytinen P, Lyytinen H. Co-occurrence of developmental delays in a screening study of 4-year-old Finnish children. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2004;46 :436 –443[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]
  37. Visscher C. Deafness and Sports. [In Dutch, English summary]. Groningen, Netherlands: Grafisch Centrum Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; 2000
  38. Geuze RH, Jongmans MJ, Schoemaker MM, Smits-Engelsman BCM. Clinical and research diagnostic criteria for developmental coordination disorder: a review and discussion. Hum Mov Sci. 2001;20 :7 –47[Medline]



source : Published online June 18, 2007, AAP-journal Pediatric

Supported  by


Yudhasmara Foundation

Office ; JL Taman Bendungan Asahan 5 Jakarta Indonesia 10210

phone : 62(021) 70081995 – 5703646

email :,




Clinic and Editor in Chief :


email :

curriculum vitae



Copyright © 2009, Children Speech Clinic  Information Education Network. All rights reserved


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: